mostly through denial and forgetting. It seems weird that I knew people, close relatives, who were born in the 19th century. I knew a World War I veteran! John Kenneth Galbraith believed that as finance industry professionals who remembered the 29 crash retired and died off, institutional memory, which acted as a kind of barrier to new bubbles and crashes, would also fade, potentially opening the door to another major market crash. And so, for example, institutions and professionals without a working memory of the Great Depression would no longer be able to understand why something like the Glass-Steagall Act was a sound idea. Today, similarly, the world is rapidly filling up with Holocaust deniers and people who've never heard of the Holocaust at all. The Holocaust stigmatized antisemitism in the western world for 70 years. The youngest of the remaining people with working memories of the Holocaust are all in their 70s now. In a few more generations, there will be no one left alive who knew anyone who experienced the Holocaust. Before World War 2, antisemitism was routine and socially acceptable. After living memory of the Holocaust is extinct, it may again become a perfectly acceptable form of prejudice among certain social groups. Maybe worse than antisemitism losing its stigma is the possibility that genocide itself will lose its stigma. The Holocaust remains an irksome drag on all the evil people in the world who would otherwise feel completely comfortable riding identity hatred all the way to its most extreme endpoint possible. But that only continues to work while people have heard about the Holocaust or believe that it happened.