If the US had not used atomic weapons in WW2, the world today would almost certainly be a different, much worse place, and I'm pretty sure that my own country of Australia, and my city of Brisbane, would be under Japanese control. History disagrees with that statement. Let's take a look at the world in August 1945, shall we? Hitler is dead. Germany is in ruins. 2.3 million German civilians have been murdered by America. Japan has lost her empire. The Japanese garrisons at Okinawa and Iwo Jima have fallen. They have been pushed back to the Japanese home islands, where they are trapped. The Red Army, having secured Eastern Europe and established what would later become the Iron Curtain, is advancing on Japan through Manchukuo (Manchuria). Emperor Hirohito is pleading with the Japanese government for surrender. It is being considered. It was only a matter of time, and Japan did not have the military capability to invade Australia at the time. Far from it. Had America set up a defence perimeter and blocked all cargo ships headed for Japan, they would have run out of oil within weeks, and would have been forced to surrender. Nobody would have died. But, the Red Army was on its way, and America was determined to "liberate" Japan before Russia could. As well, Truman wanted to show Stalin the powerful weapons that he possessed. The hundreds of thousands of innocent Japanese that died as a result of those bombs, two of them, being dropped on populated cities, were the first victims of the cold war.